b'STEP 1 of simulations. Its a 24/7 process; Argoc.Any changes to existing software are development centers in Pittsburgh, Dearborn,subjected to resimulation. Here, engineers Virtual testing: SoftwarePalo Alto, and Munich run tests all day, andtake the data from eventsor logsrecorded simulation and resimulation then run millions of additional simulations allduring previous test drives and resimulate night in the cloud. those events with new software to see how the a.The cycle begins with Argo softwareThe developers can create a simulationvehicle would have performed. Argo engineers developers writing and testing units of code of the cyclist, varying speed and direction,also use resimulation for whats known as software that, in this case, takes the image ofto evaluate how the vehicle might respond toregression testing, where they check that a person on a bicycle and determines that thethat cyclists motion. Argo engineers have tochanges to code havent undone earlier person is a cyclist and not, say, a motorcyclist,factor in a seemingly endless list of scenariosimprovements.a scooter-rider or even just a person standinginvolving bicycles, from cyclists swerving to near a bicycle. Then the developers integrateavoid potholes to the common practice ofd.If it clears the simulation stage, the passing this code into subsystems that perform acyclists treating red lights as stop signs (thisa cyclist code is ready for closed-course relevant taskfor instance, determining wherepausing action is also known as the Idahotesting, where test associates evaluate whether the cyclist is in relation to the car, as well asstop, because its a legal maneuver in thethe behavior of the SDS in the virtual world is speed and directionand test the code again.state). They then define the minimum distancereplicated when the rubber hits the road. As and appropriate speed at which the vehicleAutonomy Testing Lead Mike Pacilio says, It b.When the software is ready, it goes intowill pass the bicycle. doesnt work until it works on the car.virtual testing, where engineers create and simulate thousands of real-life scenarios in the virtual world. By taking these so-called base scenarios and fuzzing themthat is, manipulating them to add in countless variations, such as oncoming vehicles,STEPtraffic hazards, or different light and climate conditionsArgo can then perform millions11.a 1.b 1.c 1.d1.a 1.b 1.c 1.dSTEP66.a6.aSTEP55.c 5.b 5.a5.c 5.b 5.aIn our cyclist example, analysts would look for fleet logs indicating the vehicle violated STEP 6 STEP 5 distance and speed parameters as it passed a cyclist, and whether this was caused by a Post-launch updates: ContinuousData analysis: First respondersfault in the SDS or an unexpected movement improvement for disengagements by the cyclist. The analysts make extensive use of a virtual testing process known as a.Crucially, even when the SDS reaches aa.When the car returns to the depot, a teamplayforward, which shows what would have point of initial deployment as part of aof data analysts investigates each trips datahappened in the seconds after a disengage-commercial service, the work wont be done.log, which has been compiled by the testment, say, while performing an unprotected Just like a smartphone manufacturer issuingspecialists during missions around the city. left at an intersection. As at each stage in the software updates (albeit with a lot more rigor),cycle, any faults are identified and sent to Argo will continuously improve its software,b.The data analysts evaluate disengagementsdevelopers for resolution. adding features and expanding the capabilitiesevents where test specialists took back of its self-driving technology. And bycontrol of the vehicleand appoints devel- c.When its ready, the updated code gets monitoring and refining its processes, Argo willopment teams to attend to any changes toplugged back into the development and ensure that its SDS is constantly improving. hardware, software, or other infrastructure.testing cycle.'