b'65Total Recalls Johnny 1990Cab is an autonomous taxi that takes Arnold SchwarzeneggerNavLabs Dean Pomer-1995through Mars City. lau and Todd Jochem The Stanford Cart, aset out from Pittsburgh 1979four-wheel vehicle thatto California in a Pon-A shortlm, Designuses computer visiontiac minivan equipped 1956for Dreaming, at GMsto navigate, success- with RALPH (Rapidly Motorama exhibit envi- fully crosses a roomAdapting Lateral Posi-sions jet-age Firebirdson its own. tion Handler), allowing with digital displaysthe minivan to do most and voice controls thatof the driving in their No Hands Across could communicateKnight Riders KITT America journey.1982with trac-control(Knight Industry Two towers and take high- Thousand) o ers AI speed routes guidedJohn McCarthys essayassistance in the voice 1969by electrical electronicComputer-Controlledof a mild-mannered Brit-impulse-emitting metalCars envisions theish man, who quickly strips. automatic chau eurgets on his passengers years before it wouldnerves.become a reality.1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Scientists at JapansVehicles equipped The Stanford Cart:Mark Richards, Courtesy of the Computer History Museum. 1977 1996The Hughes AircraftTsukuba Mechanicalwith adaptive cruise 1961Company, under theEngineering Lab buildcontrol start to hit the guidance of Malcolma car that can follow amainstream market,rst Stitch, developed thepredetermined circuit atin Japan.system that would20 mph.evolve into todays mod-ern lidar technology. Ernst Dickmanns 1986begins testing a Mercedes-Benz van The Love Bug introduc- equipped with cam-1968es the world to Herbie, eras, computers, and the bighearted VW Bugsensors on a universityEngineer Bart Everett 1988with a taste for adven- skidpan, making it thedevelops the Mobile ture and high-speed Detection Assessment Arthur Samuel coins rst vehicle to driveand Response System1959the concept of machineracing. autonomously.learning following hisExterior (MDARS-E) groundbreaking workCarnegie Mellon Univer- rugged terrain sentry, sitys NavLab debutsa mobile robotic se-developing intelligentcurity system, as part computer games,itsrst van equippedof a joint ArmyNavy which he believedwith computers andproject.would pave the waysensors for automated for real-world problemand assisted driving.solving in the future.c4-1_Timeline-F.indd 65 4/25/21 7:09 PM'