b'ON THE SHOULDERSLong before self-driving technology became a possibility, a legion of pioneers had to establish entire newelds of study through tireless research and experimentation. Following is a guide to the theorists, roboti-cists, inventors, and engineers who built the foundations that Argo is building on today.THE PIONEERS These trailblazers laid the groundwork for autonomous devices with breakthroughs in radar, lidar, and arti cial intelligence technology.RUDOLF LNEBURGMALCOLM STITCHALLEN NEWELL HERBERT HERB A. SIMON ERNST DICKMANNS RAJ REDDYIn 1944, German mathematicsIn 1961, six months afterKnown as one of the creatorsHerb Simon was responsible,German computer scientistFor more than fi ve decades, and optics professor Rudolfthe invention of the laser,of artifi cial intelligence for hisalongside Allen Newell,Ernst Dickmanns is one ofRaj Reddys work has Lneburg invented theMalcolm Stitch guided a teamwork combining computerfor building one of thethe worlds foremost pioneersreshaped the fi elds of artifi cial Lneberg lens, a sphericalat Hughes Aircraft Companyscience and cognitiveearliest iterations of artifi cialof dynamic computer vision.intelligence and robotics. antenna that could detectin developing its fi rstpsychology, Allen Newell wasintelligence: a thinkingHe created the worlds fi rstOne of the most infl uential light waves from any anglepractical application: Colidaralso responsible for launchingmachine that could solveautonomous research vehicle,faculty members in CMUs and which would later be(short for COherent LightCarnegie Mellon Universityslogical problems by mimickinga fi ve-ton Mercedes-Benzhistory, Reddy served as adapted for use in self-drivingDetecting And Ranging). ThisSchool of Computer Science.the human brain. The 1978van equipped with camerasthe founding director of the cars. technology, which combinedHe won the A.M. TuringNobel Prize winner alsoand sensors that successfullyCMU Robotics Institute. He laser-focused imagingAward alongside Herb Simonfounded Carnegie Mellonnavigated an empty Bavarianhas won numerous awards, with the ability to calculatein 1975 for their thinkingUniversitys Tepper School ofstreet in 1986. including the A.M. Turing distances, was originallymachine, which couldBusiness. Award for his work on large-intended for use in spacebutsimulate the human thoughtscale artifi cial intelligence would eventually develop intoprocesses used to solvesystems and the Honda Prize the lidar systems that helplogical problems. for his contributions to eco-autonomous vehicles navigatetechnology.the world around them today.FullBook_Mar24.indb 68 4/25/21 6:42 PM'